4 PREVIEW Symphony No. Being careful. Alphabetical list of Philip Glass' works on his website; List of compositions by Philip Glass discography at Discogs In a 1982 interview, and on numerous other occasions, Cage stated that 4′33″ was, in his opinion, his most important work. What do people gain by controlling masses of people?”. This is possible when one clears the mind in meditation, gets rid of all the little thoughts or grandioses. Cage achieves that by employing chance (e.g., use of the I Ching, or tossing coins) to make compositional decisions. "New Jazz: 'All or Nothing at All'" (March 16, 1947). (laugh) It’s like that’s what’s happening. The time-lapse cinematography and fast-paced images of his Qatsi trilogy – “Koyaanisqatsi” (1982), “Powaqqatsi” (1988), and “Naqoyqatsi” (2002) – inspired a generation of filmmaking. What Snowden has revealed now is how quick and invasive it is; it’s everywhere. Or that’s the virtue of silence; so that we may be open to hear. "[14] Cage had gone to a place where he expected total silence, and yet heard sound. But so that one is sensitive to sound. The Woodstock printed program specifies the lengths 30″, 2′23″ and 1′40″, as does the Kremen manuscript, and presumably the original manuscript had the same indications. The ending will approach imperceptibility. "Reviews of Three Books on Satie". In 1951, Cage visited the anechoic chamber at Harvard University. And it will be done through the genius of the best storyteller I can find, Bill Irwin. So, this is the terror. It was composed in 1952, for any instrument or combination of instruments, and the score instructs performers not to play their instruments during the entire duration of the piece throughout the three movements. Kostelanetz 2003, 69–71, 86, 105, 198, 218, 231. Two trailblazing new music artists — Kronos Quartet and composer Philip Glass — come together once again for a recording of the first original score for the Universal Pictures 1931 horror film classic Dracula, starring Béla Lugosi. [52], The campaign received support from several celebrities. SYNOPSIS: As part of the Library of Congress’s Gershwin Prize for Popular Song which was awarded to Paul Simon on May 22, 2007, Philip Glass performed his arrangement of Simon’s famous song “The Sound of Silence.” The performance, including the Glass piece, was broadcast nationally on PBS. Your films were critical of technology and then there were commercials for the techno-gizmos themselves, styled on your Qatsi images and music.”, Godfrey Reggio: “There’s a couple of ways to look at that. For Hegarty, noise music, as with 4′33″, is that music made up of incidental sounds that represent perfectly the tension between "desirable" sound (properly played musical notes) and undesirable "noise" that make up all noise music. Compositions that, like 4′33″, include no sounds produced by the performer, were conceived by a number of composers and writers before Cage. My colleagues at the studio in Red Hook, New York have a regime now; as soon as I get in town with my wife, we get tested. Metamorphosis, a solo piano work in five sections, takes its name from Kafka's famous short story. It will open with a single idea which I will attempt to make as seductive as the color and shape and fragrance of a flower. “Once something is learned early in life, it’s very hard to discard. [27][page needed]. In 1962, Cage wrote 0′00″, which is also referred to as 4′33″ No. It’s real, but it’s less true than presence. The content of the piece is the electronically amplified sound of the hall and the audience. [36][37] The Swedish electronic band Covenant concluded their 2000 album United States of Mind with a rendition of 4′33″ entitled "You Can Make Your Own Music". It’s become a necessity. Tell me how you’re creating this new film ‘NOW’ with children in mind.”, Godfrey Reggio: “What I found out working with children for years, and street gangs, is that their attention span is not long. "4'33" as the Play of Silent Presence. Jones, Robert T. "[12] Painter Alfred Leslie recalls Cage presenting a "one-minute-of-silence talk" in front of a window during the late 1940s, while visiting Studio 35 at New York University.[13]. [42], On December 5, 2010, an international simultaneous performance of Cage's 4′33″ took place involving over 200 performers, amateur and professional musicians, and artists. The original Woodstock manuscript (August 1952): conventional notation, dedicated to, The Kremen manuscript (1953): graphic, space-time notation, dedicated to. “Just this morning, I had a phone call and it opened with, ‘No matter what time it is, no matter where you are, we are with you to cover every move.’ It was the bank talking about my less-than-money in my account. Stillness, or Anarchy of Silence? He’s the consummate artist of our first lingua franca which is body language, facial expression, eye behavior, gesture and humor, because humor opens the heart. Godfrey Reggio: “In the talking paper for “NOW” I write that, ‘The house is on fire, children are isolated in a manufactured world of the gizmo. What is amazing is that Glass is one of the minimalists who have made a successful transition into opera (John Adams is the other). And when it gets better, it’s back to the madness of what it was before.”, JM: “Early in your life you spent 14 years in silence and contemplation as a Christian Brothers monk. They’re captured in the net of a social media heatwave. The performance was broadcast live on BBC Radio 3, and one of the main challenges was that the station's emergency backup systems are designed to switch on and play music whenever apparent silence (dead air) lasting longer than a preset duration is detected. Godfrey Reggio: “Well, it’s a very complex question you ask. I’m not going to leave Red Hook probably more than two or three times in a year. Silence: Lectures and Writings. Otherwise I'm lagging, otherwise music is lagging'. The Duet for Two Flutes (1934), composed when Cage was 22, opens with silence, and silence was an important structural element in some of the Sonatas and Interludes (1946–48), Music of Changes (1951) and Two Pastorales (1951). Philip Glass "Sons of the Silent Age" from Symphony "Heroes" 1997 Music composed by Philip Glass. We’re in a state where we realize now that to go back to normal, which all of us desire, is not enough. His white paintings [...] when I saw those, I said, 'Oh yes, I must. And then enslaving everyone for the god of money and power. The score instructs the performer to build a sound system in the concert hall, so that "the whole hall is on the edge of feedback, without actually feeding back." It first came into prominence after it was mentioned by science writer Ben Goldacre on his Twitter profile. The house is on fire, it’s time to move. Another cited influence[12] for this piece came from the field of the visual arts. It went from the rhythm of its creation, an artful gift – not a necessity, a gift – and was put into the structure of the beast; the viewing machine, the screen. Reggio told the Sentinel he’s working with an “unfixed script” and describes “NOW” as “an anarchic comedic fairy tale fantasy of the real.”, JM: “You’ve been concerned for a long time about the effect of technology on people. Titled “Ten Years and Counting,” it referred to the real-life approach of Orwell’s dystopian 1984. As a result, the underlying structure of any musical piece consists of an organized sequence of "time buckets". From the music of David Bowie and Brian Eno. How does that experience continue to affect you?”, Godfrey Reggio: “Silence is so that you may hear. Cage's friend and sometimes colleague Robert Rauschenberg had produced, in 1951, a series of white paintings, seemingly "blank" canvases (though painted with white house paint) that in fact change according to varying light conditions in the rooms in which they were hung, the shadows of people in the room and so on. The piece consists of the sounds of the environment that the listeners hear while it is performed,[4] although it is commonly perceived as "four minutes thirty-three seconds of silence". We’ll be looking at things like a calliope, toy piano, kazoo, bells and orchestra. He’s since become a real heterodox in technology. If we didn’t have Zuckerberg, we’d have Dumaflagey. ... Pearl Jam – had better results than the silent group. There's a short introduction by Philip Glass from 1992 plus the translations in French and German from 1996. Instead of distributing this through Netflix, or whatever, we’re going to go directly free for all into the Net, in the ubiquitous medium of the gizmo. The inlay can be folded out. I entered this differently from some of my colleagues because they have careers. Get your own music profile at Last.fm, the world’s largest social music platform. New York: Harper & Row. Nevertheless, in 4′33″ the audience contributed the bulk of the musical material of the piece. Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is an American composer.He is widely regarded as one of the most influential musicians of the late 20th century. Money becomes almost useless with that kind of power. The causes of this discrepancy are not currently understood, the original manuscript being still lost.[1]. You were concerned about surveillance, data collection and behavior control of the masses. [28] In the case of Stravinsky's Rite of Spring, this would consist of widespread dissatisfaction leading up to violent riots. He composed One3, the full title of which is One3 = 4′33″ (0′00″) + . We’re becoming that environment of technology becoming sensate. Godfrey Reggio, cinematography by Ron Fricke. But I’ll give you an example; ‘The vivid unknown.’ It’s putting opposites together. And the change being asked for is not cosmetic. They missed the point. "[51] As of September 2017[update], the Facebook page has over 65,000 likes. At the first performance Cage had to write that sentence. External links. The second point made by 4′33″ concerns duration. [10], The first time Cage mentioned the idea of a piece composed entirely of silence was during a 1947 (or 1948) lecture at Vassar College, A Composer's Confessions. The third point is that the work of music is defined not only by its content but also by the behavior it elicits from the audience. The Concerto for prepared piano and orchestra (1951) closes with an extended silence, and Waiting (1952), a piano piece composed just a few months before 4′33″, consists of long silences framing a single, short ostinato pattern. We’ve become the screen. [8] It was also a reflection of the influence of Zen Buddhism, which Cage had studied since the late 1940s. Music by Philip Glass. 4 "Heroes") composed by American composer Philip Glass in 1996 based on the album "Heroes" by David Bowie.Glass had based his earlier Low Symphony on the David Bowie album Low We’re strapped in for the ride, we’re not the driver. During the second, raindrops began pattering the roof, and during the third the people themselves made all kinds of interesting sounds as they talked or walked out. It deals with the fundamental structure of how we live a way of life that calls for another way of living.”, JM: “Would you say more about the effect the ubiquitous screen has on young people?”. 4′33″ challenges, or rather exploits to a radical extent, the social regiments of the modern concert life etiquette, experimenting on unsuspecting concert-goers to prove an important point. "[15] The realization as he saw it of the impossibility of silence led to the composition of 4′33″. Philip Glass’ influence can be felt throughout the album. JM: “Are we to expect that the music for ‘NOW’ will be Philip Glass?” ... One is silent not to be silent. "Until I die there will be sounds. And they will continue following my death. It’s still doing that now; it has a life of its own. Philip Glass. 2015. We’ve become separated. 4 "Heroes": IV. [56] This version of Cage's work failed to make number 1, but charted at number 21 on the UK Singles Chart.[57]. [9] The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians describes 4′33″ as Cage's "most famous and controversial creation". 4′33″ (pronounced "four minutes, thirty-three seconds" or just "four thirty-three") is a three-movement composition by American experimental composer John Cage (1912–1992). As in all number pieces, "One" refers to the number of performers required. This paragraph summarizes some of the findings from Solomon 1998/2002. The situation we’re in speaks of a liminal state; that state between two places. [43], On November 17, 2015, The Late Show with Stephen Colbert uploaded a video of this piece being performed by a cat, showing that its performer isn't required to be human. ISBN 0-06-015823-9. In a 2013 TED talk, psychologist Paul Bloom put forward 4′33″ as one example to show that knowing about the origin of something influences our opinion about it as "that silence is different from other forms of silence". Philip Glass, one of our reigning minimalists, studied under Darius Milhaud and Nadia Boulanger in Paris and his music has always had a quiet Debussy-like character to it. These and Reggio’s earlier films “Anima Mundi” (1991) and “Evidence” (1995) reflect back to the viewer a modern way of life that’s become absorbed into an environment of technology that is, as Reggio puts it, “on speed in rush hour.”, “Visitors” (2013) was a dramatic shift for Reggio, constructed of 74 unhurried images in 87 minutes. "[16] In an introduction to an article called On Robert Rauschenberg, Artist, and His Works, John Cage writes "To Whom It May Concern: The white paintings came first; my silent piece came later."[17]. Most recent film and television work includes a guest role on the hit British BBC series Silent Witness and the Kentucky Barmaid in Kingsmen 2: The Golden Circle. Phillip has been the most consistent tent pole for the whole project.”, JM: “When ‘Koyaanisqati’ was released, the style was pretty quickly, and ironically, emulated in the world of television commercials. It's easy enough to imagine this piece accompanying a retro silent film about Michelson and Morley, the two light-obsessed scientists Glass commemorates. [45], In the week leading up to Christmas 2010, a Facebook page was created to encourage people in the UK to buy a new rendition of 4′33″[46] in the hope that it would prevent the winner of the seventh series of The X Factor from topping the UK Singles Chart and achieving the Christmas number one. But we want to go now! (ed.). It was composed in 1952, for any instrument or combination of instruments, and the score instructs performers not to play their instruments during the entire duration of the piece throughout the three movements. Cage entered the chamber expecting to hear silence, but he wrote later, "I heard two sounds, one high and one low. [30], Several versions of the score exist:[31] There are four known later versions, one of which is in the New York Public Library. Glass’s score marks the first-ever for a … What John Cage's silent symphony really means, Interview with Kyle Gann about 4'33" on The Next Track podcast, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=4′33″&oldid=993061761, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2010, Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles incorporating the Cite Grove template, Wikipedia articles incorporating the Cite Grove template without a link parameter, Wikipedia articles incorporating the Cite Grove template with a doi parameter, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Cage told the audience that he had "several new desires", one of which was, to compose a piece of uninterrupted silence and sell it to Muzak Co. The directions originally consisted of one sentence: "In a situation provided with maximum amplification, perform a disciplined action." It will be three or four-and-a-half minutes long—those being the standard lengths of "canned" music and its title will be Silent Prayer. Not for any progressive reason, but because it turns kids into addicts. So, we’ll be as flexible as we have to be. I hear they have big blimps now over Africa, to be able to get everybody gizmos, or as many people as possible. Furthermore, the audience's behavior is limited by the rules and regulation of the concert hall; they will quietly sit and listen to 4′33” of ambient noise. Therefore, the only way to achieve truth is to remove the artist from the process of creation. And catch the scary silent-movie-house organ! Interview With MoMA Curator David Platzker About the New Exhibition on John Cage. The audience saw him sit at the piano and, to mark the beginning of the piece, close the keyboard lid. Cage, John. We live off the manna from the cloud.”, JM: “You describe ‘NOW’ as an, “anarchic comedic fairy tale fantasy of the real.” Tell me about anarchic humor.”, Godfrey Reggio: “The definition I find most clear for anarchic humor comes from a professor in Slovenia named Alenka Zupančič. And this is a technological necessity now.”, JM: “What’s the gift of power? And it’s what we’re all wanting. 4′33″ (pronounced "four minutes, thirty-three seconds" or just "four thirty-three")[1] is a three-movement composition[2][3] by American experimental composer John Cage (1912–1992). And who knows when, or if, it’ll get better? So, I’m doing five neo fast-food films for kids, each about eight minutes long. While the renaissance of interest in the countertenor voice has made it much more familiar than it was when Glass initially wrote this music in the early 1980s, Akhnaten’s singing retains a startling effect—at least initially—since he is a silent visual presence onstage until well into the first act. In 4′33″, neither artist nor composer has any impact on the piece, so that Cage has no way of controlling what ambient sounds will be heard by the audience. [29] They could be filled with either sounds, silence or noise; where neither of these elements is absolutely necessary for completeness. They’ve become addicted, commoditized, bought and sold. Glass, Philip (1987). Dealing with kids. That’s a mouthful, I know. We’re fighting fire with fire.”, JM: “Are we to expect that the music for ‘NOW’ will be Philip Glass?”, Godfrey Reggio: “Yes, indeed. Though married to Eurydice, Orphée falls in love with an enigmatic Princess. This is motivated by the belief that what we think of as "self-expression" is really just an infusion of the art with the social standards that we have been subjected to since birth. [49][50] The creators of the Facebook page hoped that reaching number one would help to promote the piece and "make December 25 'a silent night'. But it’s also been appropriated, like anything that has a life of its own. On backcover: It takes them outside of the real world into this manufactured world where they’re the product. They had to be switched off for this performance. Tenney's recording is archived on line via The Society for the Activation of Social Space through Art and Sound (SASSAS), The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, "John Cage and the Avant-Garde: The Sounds of Silence", "A few notes about silence and John Cage", "Paul Bloom: The origins of pleasure - Talk Video - TED.com", "ABC Classic FM music details for 11 July 2001", "Living Colour – The Chair In The Doorway", "We're pitching the silence of John Cage against the noise of Simon Cowell", "Sound of silence vies to be Christmas number one", "At time of writing, Cage Against The Machine has almost 16,000 followers on Facebook", "Campaigners launch bid to make silent track Christmas No1 ahead of X Factor winner", "JOHN CAGE'S 4'33" FOR CHRISTMAS NUMBER ONE 2010", "Why I'm backing Cage Against the Machine for Christmas No 1", 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.A2223954. In Cage's 4′33″, the audience felt cheated by having to listen to no composed sounds from the performer. [38], On January 16, 2004, at the Barbican Centre in London, the BBC Symphony Orchestra gave the UK's first orchestral performance of this work. Now during the pandemic, we’ve taken a huge leap forward into even more time on screens.”, Godfrey Reggio: “That’s the ubiquitous screen. One need not fear about the future of music. ", This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 16:20. Power more than money. Print. [39] BBC Four broadcast the recording one hour later. The transgression of the boundary between high art and low art, classical and pop music, is a theme that seems to have recurred in virtually every generation of composers from Mahler to the minimalists. Since the Romantic Era composers have been striving to produce music that could be separated from any social connections, transcending the boundaries of time and space. 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