Hodges, Peter. In the hundred years prior to Giza—beginning with Djoser, who ruled from 2687–2667 BC, and amongst dozens of other temples, smaller pyramids, and general construction projects—four other massive pyramids were built: the Step pyramid of Saqqara (believed to be the first Egyptian pyramid), the pyramid of Meidum, the Bent Pyramid, and the Red Pyramid. The unknowns of pyramid construction chiefly center on the question of how the blocks were moved up the superstructure. The earliest … Thames and Hudson. Greek architecture: Ancient Greek Construction Methods The Greeks laid their masonry without mortar but with joints cut to great exactness. Sticks, Stones, and Shadows: Building the Egyptian Pyramids. [52] As Dr. Craig Smith of the team points out: The logistics of construction at the Giza site are staggering when you think that the ancient Egyptians had no pulleys, no wheels, and no iron tools. [11][12] Blocks were transported by sledge likely lubricated by water. Rather, the same multitude of workmen who raised the mounds returned the entire mass again to its original place; for they say that three hundred and sixty thousand men were constantly employed in the prosecution of their work, yet the entire edifice was hardly finished at the end of twenty years. The best known example of ancient Egyptian architecture are the Egyptian pyramids while excavated temples, palaces, tombs and fortresses have also been studied. Stonecutters used copper drills and saws, probably using a quartz slurry to aid in the process. The earliest known glass beads from Egypt were produced in a variety of colours. Mortise-and-tenon joints had, of course, been used previously in Bronze Age ships in Egypt, as in the construction of the Khufu s boat at Giza (ca. In Lehner's (1997: 222) point of view, levers should be employed to lift the top 3% of the material of the superstructure. [44], Dipayan Jana, a petrographer, made a presentation to the ICMA (International Cement Microscopy Association) in 2007[45] and gave a paper[46] in which he discusses Davidovits's and Barsoum's work and concludes "we are far from accepting even as a remote possibility a 'man-made' origin of pyramid stones. The Structural Engineer, April 2009, The main problems / drawbacks of all ramp systems. The materials and methods of construction used in the earliest pyramids have ensured their survival in a generally much better state of preservation than for the pyramid monuments of the later pharaohs. Ask the town scholar about that temple, he is an expert on the subject. Using scanning electron microscopy, they discovered in samples of the limestone pyramid blocks mineral compounds and air bubbles that do not occur in natural limestone. The majestic form of the Egyptian pyramids is a thing of beauty to behold. Sanctification of obelisks dates back to the pre-dynasty period. The limestone blocks were … They used plumb bobs and square levels to ensure that corners of blocks were square and that surfaces were flat. The pools were then left to evaporate, leaving behind a moist, clay-like mixture. One of the most important features of ancient Egyptian architecture is that no wood was used in construction. To add to the uncertainty, there is considerable evidence demonstrating that non-standardized or ad hoc construction methods were used in pyramid construction (Arnold 1991: 98,[25] Lehner 1997: 223). Proof-of-concept tests using similar compounds were carried out at a geopolymer institute in northern France and it was found that a crew of five to ten, working with simple hand tools, could agglomerate a structure of five, 1.3 to 4.5 ton blocks in a couple of weeks. In the early pyramids, the layers of stone (called courses) forming the pyramid body were laid sloping inwards; however, this configuration was found to be less stable than simply stacking the stones horizontally on top of each other. 1989. [13][14] Leveling the foundation may have been accomplished by use of water-filled trenches as suggested by Mark Lehner and I.E.S. The Greeks, many years after the event, believed that the pyramids must have been built by slave labor. This method which aided in lifting the heavy alabaster stones up from their quarries, may have been used to build Egypt's Great Pyramid as well. There are zig-zagging ramps, straight ramps using the incomplete part of the superstructure (Arnold 1991), spiraling ramps supported by the superstructure and spiraling ramps leaning on the monument as a large accretion are proposed. These methods include studying pottery remains, as well as carbon dating, and stratigraphy. Overview about the Egyptian pyramid construction techniques, Building the pyramids from quarried stone blocks, Writings of Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, Jean-Pierre Houdin's "internal ramp" hypothesis, Parry, Dick "Engineering the Pyramids" The History Press 2013. an illustration of a large statue weighing about 60 tonnes being pulled by a sledge with a liquid being poured ahead of it is described in Stocks, Denys A. Edwards, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen; John Cruikshank Rose. [56] Yannis Gourdon, co-director of the joint mission at Hatnub, said:[56]. In addition to the many unresolved arguments about the construction techniques, there have been disagreements as to the kind of workforce used. Of these, the razor was the main implement used for cutting the hair. Levering methods are considered to be the most tenable solution to complement ramping methods, partially due to Herodotus's description; and partially to the Shadoof; an irrigation device first depicted in Egypt during the New Kingdom, and found concomitantly with the Old Kingdom in Mesopotamia. Journal of Geological Education, vol. (Julian Keable ed.) Since the discussion of construction techniques to lift the blocks attempts to resolve a gap in the archaeological and historical record with a plausible functional explanation, the following examples by Isler, Keable, and Hussey-Pailos[29] list experimentally tested methods. "Pyramid Construction. How the Pyramids Were Built. The harder stones, such as granite, granodiorite, syenite, and basalt, cannot be cut with copper tools alone; instead, they were worked with time-consuming methods like pounding with dolerite, drilling, and sawing with the aid of an abrasive, such as quartz sand. [33] The stones of the external ramp are re-cycled into the upper stories, thus explaining the otherwise puzzling lack of evidence for ramps. This method was tested with materials of less strength than historical analogs (tested with materials weaker than those available in ancient Egypt), a factor of safety of 2, and lifted a 2500-pound block up one course in under a minute. The vast majority of the workforce provided support services such as scribes, toolmakers and other backup services. It is not surprising that the occasional eyebrow was raised in the past concerning the extent of the Egyptian masonry skills during the Early dynastic period. M. W. Barsoum, A. Ganguly, G. Hug (2006). The word Neanderthal is a combination of the German word for valley, thal, and the location of the fossils of an early man discovered in the Neander Valley. Metals were smelted and cast to form axes, chisels, rivets and jugs. 2001. During the earliest period, pyramids were constructed wholly of stone. These instruments were made of wood, twine, and lightweight stones. Mark Lehner speculated that a spiraling ramp, beginning in the stone quarry to the southeast and continuing around the exterior of the pyramid, may have been used. Lehner, Mark 1997. According to Miroslav Verner, a workforce of no more than 30,000 was needed in the Great Pyramid's construction. The art was created using mediums ranging from papyrus drawing to the pictographs and include funerary sculpture carved in relief and in the round from sandstones, quartzites, diorite, and granite. Evidence suggests that around 5,000 were permanent workers on salaries with the balance working three- or four-month shifts in lieu of taxes while receiving subsistence "wages" of ten loaves of bread and a jug of beer per day. One incorrect assumption is that the term Neanderthal refers simply to a caveman or a brute. The method most accepted for assisting ramps is levering[24] (Lehner 1997: 222). According to the historians, the Pyramids were constructed in Egypt during 2800-2400 BC and may be considered as the first large structure construction ever. Other measuring instruments included rules, ropes, and squares.As … The ancient Egyptians used several different types of ramps, both internal and external to the pyramid, to drag the huge stones into place. Today, we call these foundation rituals. They used iron hammers, chisels and levers (this is a modern shortcut, as the ancient Egyptians were limited to using copper and later bronze and wood). Four of those objects could be fitted around a block so it could be rolled easily. [32] His/their scheme involves using a regular external ramp to build the first 30% of the pyramid, with an "internal ramp" taking stones up beyond that height. [52] Most sources agree on this number of blocks somewhere above 2.3 million. [53] Their calculations suggest the workforce could have sustained a rate of 180 blocks per hour (3 blocks/minute) with ten-hour work days for putting each individual block in place. The 1984 results left us with too little data to conclude that the historical chronology of the Old Kingdom was wrong by nearly 400 years, but we considered this at least a possibility". In particular, construction in ancient Egypt was complicated by the composition of its land much of it either soggy, marsh soil or shifting sand. Davidovits's method is not accepted by the academic mainstream. Occasionally, granite was used in the outer casing as well, such as in the Pyramid of Menkaure. Yet, the dimensions of the pyramid are extremely accurate and the site was leveled within a fraction of an inch over the entire 13.1-acre base. Oxford University Press. It was made out of 186 stones weighing an average of 2.2 tons each. It is important to note that the top 4% of this material comprises ​1⁄3 of the total height of the monument. [34] In 2006 Houdin announced it in a book: Khufu: The Secrets Behind the Building of the Great Pyramid,[35] and in 2008 he and Egyptologist Bob Brier wrote a second book: The Secret of the Great Pyramid.[36]. The archaeological record gives evidence of only small ramps and inclined causeways, not something that could have been used to construct even a majority of the monument. New York, New York. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 1998. [38] In 1986 a member of the French team (see below) saw a desert fox at this notch, rather as if it had ascended internally. [15][16], The diary of Merer, logbooks written more than 4,500 years ago by an Egyptian official and found in 2013 by a French archeology team under the direction of Pierre Tallet in a cave in Wadi al-Jarf, describes the transportation of limestone from the quarry in Tora to Giza.[17][18]. Nubian vaults, which were used to build houses in ancient Egypt and involve the construction of vaulted roofs using dried mud blocks, both utilize local materials and eliminate the need for … Some information about the techniques used to cut and refine the limestone or granite boulders is obtained from tomb paintings. But this is certain, that the upper part of the pyramid was finished off first, then the next below it, and last of all the base and the lowest part. The best known example of construction in Ancient Egypt is, of course, the great pyramid. The tombs of supervisors contain inscriptions regarding the organisation of the workforce. Ancient Egyptians used to build two obelisks, one at each side of the temple gate. Even to this day, they still continue to inspire wonder in tourists, mathematicians, and archaeologists who continue to visit, explore and measure these fascinating monuments to the ancient past. A construction management study carried out by the firm Daniel, Mann, Johnson, & Mendenhall in association with Mark Lehner, and other Egyptologists, estimates that the total project required an average workforce of 14,567 people and a peak workforce of 40,000. The Ancient Egyptians had a knowledge to some extent of sail construction. This is governed by the science of aerodynamics. Neanderthals were not brutes. Now Egyptians try to make a marvel of these things, alleging that the ramps were made of salt and natron and that, when the river was turned against them, it melted them clean away and obliterated their every trace without the use of human labor. They say the ancient Egyptians were great architects. Herodotus's account states:[20]. in Ancient Rome (pottery used to lighten the vaults of Circo di Massenzio). Ancient Egypt is known for many technological and artistic achievements, constructing pyramids and temples, inventing a system of writing, hieroglyphs, and making advancements in medicine, astronomy, and many other fields. Journal of the American Ceramic Society 89 (12), 3788–3796. Eventually, stone became to be used almost exclusively for temples and tombs while houses and even palaces were constructed with bricks. The techniques used to build the Giza pyramids were developed over a period of centuries, with all of the problems and setbacks that any modern-day scientist or engineer would face.Pyramids originated from simple rectangular \"mastaba\" tombs that were being constructed in Egypt over 5,000 years ago, according to finds made by archaeologist Sir Flinders Petrie. Monumental buildings were built via the post and lintel method of construction. An example of this design can be … They used levers to lift the capstone to a height of 20 feet (6.1 m). in Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. Egypt is (and was) one of the most arid areas in the world. Harrell, James A. and Bret E. Penrod. Limestone was the primary form of stone used in architecture, although sandstone and granite were also frequently used. For instance, mathematician Kurt Mendelssohn calculated that the workforce may have been 50,000 men at most, while Ludwig Borchardt and Louis Croon placed the number at 36,000. Archaeological evidence for the use of ramps has been found at the Great Pyramid of Giza[23] and other pyramids. Other imports included spices, frankincense, iron and tin, while they exported papyrus, pottery and perfumes. ", In 1997, Mark Lehner and stonemason Roger Hopkins conducted a three-week pyramid-building experiment for a NOVA television episode. BC Where coarse stonework or crude bricks were used, a coating, composed of marble dust and lime rubbed and highly polished, was applied to them. Materials scientist Joseph Davidovits has claimed that the blocks of the pyramid are not carved stone, but mostly a form of limestone concrete and that they were "cast" as with modern concrete. Most pyramids built then were little more than mountains of mud-brick encased in a veneer of polished limestone. Most ancient Egyptian buildings were constructed of either mud bricks with wood elements or waddle‐and‐daub walls of intertwined poles packed with mud. New Evidence Discovered at Giza." Egyptian knowledge of glass making was advanced. “When building the pyramids, their creators carefully positioned what was described as magical papyrus underneath the edges of the mighty stones that were to be used in the construction process. Did the Egyptians create a canal and a port to bring stone to the Great Pyramid? Huge quantities of gypsum and rubble were needed. Isler's method (1985, 1987) is an incremental method and, in the Nova experiment (1992), used wooden shims or cribbing. This method is presented as a levering device to work complementary with Mark Lehner's idea of a combined ramp and levering techniques. . at Dashur (Lipke 1984, 64; Steffy 1994, 25-27, 32-36, Patch and Haldane 1990). [48][49], Some research suggests alternate estimates to the accepted workforce size. To develop this hypothesis, Jean-Pierre Houdin, also an architect, gave up his job and set about drawing the first fully functional CAD architectural model of the Great Pyramid. Marble was not generally used until the 5th cent. [citation needed]. Scene elements were drafted out using red paint, corrections noted in black paint, and then the painting was executed one color at a time. The Ancient Egyptian Superior Farming Techniques . [37] This 10-square-meter clear space housed a crane that lifted and rotated each 2.5-ton block, to ready it for eight men to drag up the next internal ramp. For use in the construction of their ocean faring ships, the Egyptians imported cedar from the people inhabiting the coastal areas of modern Lebanon or Syria. The sledges were pulled along a path made slick with Nile mud or by wetting the sand, which made it easier to move the heavy blocks. 2600 B. C.) and Senwosret III s boats (ca. Pseudoscientific theories have proliferated in the vacuum of official construction explanations. Workmen probably used copper chisels, drills, and saws to cut softer stone, such as most of the limestone. Although no written records exist of Egyptian prehistory, historians can use several archaeology excavation techniques to construct a reasonable timeline, as well as to discover what life was like for Egypt’s earliest inhabitants. Davidovits's hypothesis gained support from Michel Barsoum, a materials science researcher. The precise and accurate execution that characterized Ancient Egyptian construction and architecture was brought about without the use of modern, “advanced” technology. Ship building prevailed. Therefore, most discussion on construction methods involves functional possibilities that are supported by limited historical and archaeological evidence. When this, its first form, was completed, the workmen used short wooden logs as levers to raise the rest of the stones; they heaved up the blocks from the ground onto the first tier of steps; when the stone had been raised, it was set on another lever that stood on the first tier, and the lever again used to lift it from this tier to the next. [40] According to this hypothesis, soft limestone with a high kaolinite content was quarried in the wadi on the south of the Giza Plateau. These early Egyptian examples of mortise-and-tenons, however, were freestanding and not pegged to lock adjacent strakes … The Twelfth Dynasty tomb of Djehutihotep has an illustration of 172 men pulling an alabaster statue of him on a sledge. It enabled the raising of the five 60-ton granite beams that roof the King's Chamber. Ancient Egyptian Engineering Techniques,Ancient Egypt Engineering Facts, Ancient Egyptian Numbers & Numeral system. Experiments done by the Obayashi Corporation, with concrete blocks 0.8 metres (2 ft 7 in) square by 1.6 metres (5 ft 3 in) long and weighing 2.5 tonnes (2,500 kg; 5,500 lb), showed how 18 men could drag the block over a 1-in-4 incline ramp, at a rate of 18 metres per minute (1 ft/s). No plans or specifications for the pyramid have survived, though certainly some probably existed at the time of construction. Isler, Martin "On Pyramid Building II." While the builders failed to duplicate the precise jointing created by the ancient Egyptians, Hopkins was confident that this could have been achieved with more practice. [citation needed], During the Middle Kingdom, pyramid construction techniques changed again. The first historical accounts of the construction of these monuments came centuries after the era of pyramid construction, by Herodotus in the 5th century BC and Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC. It formed the bulk of the materials used in the construction of the pyramids and rough limestone was utilized in the core of the pyramid. The Complete Pyramids. Let's delve into a little bit of the history of these wonderful pyramids, and explore the too… Carbon dating samples from core blocks and other materials revealed that dates from the 1984 study averaged 374 years earlier than currently accepted and the 1995 dating averaging 100–200 years. The rituals involved leaving a foundation deposit buried not only under the corners of, for example, a temple, but sometimes at the … They built a pyramid 6 metres (20 ft) high by 9 metres (30 ft) wide, consisting of a total of 162 cubic metres (5,700 cu ft), or about 405 tons. drawn or written on ostraca, pieces of limestone or potsherds, that were used for quick notes or sketches, almost like scratch paper. For the Middle Kingdom Pyramid of Amenemhat II, there is evidence from the annal stone of the king that foreigners from Canaan were used.[1]. [55], In October 2018, a team of archaeologists from the Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale and University of Liverpool had announced the discovery of the remains of a 4,500-year-old ramp contraption at Hatnub, excavated since 2012. M. W. Barsoum, A. Ganguly & G. Hug, (2006). Locally quarried limestone was the material of choice for the main body of these pyramids, while a higher quality of limestone quarried at Tura (near modern Cairo) was used for the outer casing. Backsighting must have been possible on a regular basis throughout the building process; there fore, accessibility must have been guaranteed. Limestone was one of the materials used to build the Pyramids of Giza. They were marked out with just enough space for workers to stand between them. Aspects of construction technique and safety issues should be considered for the construction process as well as for subsequent dressing. [41] He also claims that the Famine Stele, along with other hieroglyphic texts, describe the technology of stone agglomeration. Zahi Hawass believes that the majority of workers may have been volunteers. Hawass, Zahi. Introduction: art or engineering? The most common building materials that were used in ancient Egyptian architecture were sun-baked mud bricks and stones. Houdin's thesis remains unproven and in 2007, UCL Egyptologist David Jeffreys described the internal spiral hypothesis as "far-fetched and horribly complicated", while Oxford University's John Baines, declared he was "suspicious of any theory that seeks to explain only how the Great Pyramid was built". One of the major problems faced by the early pyramid builders was the need to move huge quantities of stone. Obelisks were a prominent part of the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrances of temples. Harder stones such as granite or basalt were used to construct monuments, but also served as tools to work softer stones, including limestone and alabaster. After cutting stones, they were moved down the Nile on large wooden barges and then transported to the site on large wooden sledges pulled by hundreds of men or oxen. Edited by Heike Guksch and Daniel Polz. They estimated they would have needed around 20 extra men for this maintenance. Since the Egyptians made no use of block and tackle methods, or cranes, it is usually assumed that wooden and bronze levers were used to manoeuvre the … Another shortcut taken was the use of a front-end loader or fork lift truck, but modern machinery was not used to finish the construction. As the stones forming the core of the pyramids were roughly cut, especially in the Great Pyramid, the material used to fill the gaps was another problem. Historical accounts for the construction of the Egyptian pyramids do little to point definitively to methods to lift the blocks; yet most Egyptologists refer to these accounts when discussing this portion of pyramid construction. A major advance occurred during the reign of the pharaoh Djoser (reign started around 2630 B.C). [citation needed]. Thales, according to the philosopher Hieronymus (3rd century BC)[19] visited the Egyptian pyramids during the 7th century BC and by using the intercept theorem, also known as Thales's theorem, measured their height and thus their volume. Egyptian artists also used a variety of woods in their work, including the native acacia, tamarisk, and sycamore fig as well as fir, cedar, and other conifers imported from Syria. Houdin's father was an architect who, in 1999, thought of a construction method that, it seemed to him, made more sense than any existing method proposed for building pyramids. Building in Egypt: Pharaonic Stone Masonry. [26] One of the widely discredited ramping methods is the large straight ramp, and it is routinely discredited on functional grounds for its massive size, lack of archaeological evidence, huge labor cost, and other problems (Arnold 1991: 99, Lehner 1997: 215, Isler 2001: 213[27]). 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